About

The AERM was formed in Stockholm in June 2010. The Alliance is formed of national republican (anti-monarchy) movements from each of the largest European monarchies. Member organisations meet a number of times during the year to discuss campaign strategies and to share ideas and experiences.

Each year the AERM holds a convention hosted by one of the member organisations. These are opportunities to work on more detailed analyses of our common issues and campaign strategies.

Read more about our guiding principles

Republican campaigns in each country

Denmark

  • Republik Nu was established in 2010 as Denmark’s only national republican movement.
  • The Danish Queen, Margrethe, has been on the throne since 1972. The Danish monarch has limited reserve powers which today are exercised by the Danish parliament.

Netherlands

  • The Netherlands has one of the most expensive monarchies in Europe.
  • King Willem-Alexander has significant powers according to the constitution, in practice the royal family has mostly used its influence to secure financial benefits.
  • The Dutch Republic Movement Republiek was founded in 1998 and has over 25,000 supporters, thousands of members and an active media and social media presence.
  • Support for the monarchy is down after several scandals. Only a small majority favours the monarchy (57%), amoung young Dutch citizens a majority now prefers abolition.

Norway

  • Harald is the current king of Norway, having reigned since 1991. Norway is a constitutional monarchy and while in theory the king has significant powers they are all exercised by the government. However the monarch and by extension his family have legal immunity, and there are questions about the role and status of royalty in a modern democracy like Norway.
  • The Norwegian republican group is Norge Som Republikk, which remains small but committed to its long-term aims and is an active member of the AERM.

Spain

  • Spain’s monarchy has been rocked by serious scandals and revelations over the past ten years. Having been on the throne since 1975, King Juan Carlos resigned in disgrace in 2014, handing over the role to his son, Felipe. Since then more scandals have emerged and Juan Carlos fled Spain to live in self-imposed exile.
  • Support for abolition of the Spanish monarchy is often recorded at around fifty percent.
  • There are various regional and politically affiliated republican groups in Spain. Red Republicana is a member of the AERM as a national, non-aligned group hoping to bring republicans together on the single issue of a Spanish republic.

Sweden

  • The current Swedish royal family dates back to 1810, since when it has gradually lost its power and constitutional role. In 1975 almost all formal constitutional functions were removed from the Swedish monarchy.
  • Carl XVI Gustaf became king on 15 September 1973 on the death of his grandfather Gustaf VI Adolf and because of his father's early death has become the longest reigning monarch in Swedish history.
  • The republican movement in Sweden, Republikanska Föreningen, was established in the late 1990s and today has thousands of members and an active media presence, as well as support in parliament.
  • Support for the monarchy is lower than in most other countries, but remains well above fifty percent.

United Kingdom

  • The UK has one of the most expensive, ostentatious and unreformed monarchies in the democratic world. The current monarch, Elizabeth II, has been on the throne since early 1952. During her reign the monarchy has faced numerous scandals and currently faces accusations of cash-for-access, racism and failing to cooperate with US law-enforcement regarding Prince Andrew’s involvement with Jeffrey Epstein.
  • The British monarch has significant power on paper, but all that power is exercised on the instruction of the PM or ministers. This makes the British government highly centralised and very powerful in terms of domestic politics.
  • The campaign group Republic was formed in 1983 and re-launched in 2006. Republic has over 100,000 supporters, thousands of members and an active media and social media presence.
  • While headline poll numbers show high levels of support for the monarchy, there are indications that support is falling. Polls in 2021 showed a majority of younger people are in favour of abolition.

Andorra

  • Andorra is a monarchy without a royal family. Instead of a king, Andorra has two co-princes who are the current Bishop of Urgell and the President of France. This arrangement dates back to 1278, although it was the King of France from 1607 and the president since France became a republic.
  • AERM is unaware of any republican sentiment or movement in Andorra.

Belgium

  • King Philippe became Belgium’s monarch in 2013.
  • 66,1% of the French-speaking Walloon Region supports the monarchy, while only 45,4% of the Dutch-speaking Flanders region is in favour of a king.
  • A small Belgian republican movement has since ceased to exist and the AERM is keen to encourage and support Belgian’s in start a new campaign.

Liechtenstein

  • The Principality of Liechtenstein is a semi-constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein, Hans-Adam; the Prince's extensive powers are equivalent to those of a President in a semi-presidential system like France. The state is in effect a hostage to the Prince’s demands. A referendum to adopt Hans-Adam's revision of the Constitution of Liechtenstein to expand his powers passed in 2003. The prince had threatened to leave the country if the referendum did not result in his favour, which may have cost the small country billions of dollars as he had a personal claim to the nation’s wealth.
  • In a July 2012 referendum, the people of Liechtenstein overwhelmingly rejected by a proposal to curtail the political power of the princely family. A few days before the vote, Crown Prince Alois announced he would veto any relaxing of the ban on abortion, also up for referendum. Turnout collapsed and 76 per cent of those voting in the first referendum supported the Prince's power to veto the outcome of future referendums.

Luxembourg

  • Luxembourg is the world’s last remaining sovereign Duchy, which doesn’t really mean a whole lot other than it’s a monarchy by another name. Henri is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He has reigned since 7 October 2000. Henri, the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean and Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, is a first cousin of King Philippe of Belgium.
  • There are signs of a republican movement being created in Luxembourg and the AERM is keen to encourage such a movement to become a full member of the Alliance.

Monaco

  • Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State as the head of government, who presides over the other five members of the Council of Government. Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the Government of France; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monégasque. On 1 September 2020, Prince Albert II appointed a French citizen, Pierre Dartout, to the office.
  • The AERM is unaware of any republican movement or sentiment in Monaco.

Vatican City

  • The Vatican City is technically an absolute monarchy, although in practice the sovereign state is simply the headquarters of the Catholic church and has no indigenous population.